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Joseph Smith Latter-day Saint History

What Is the White Horse Prophecy?

It’s a hotly-debated vision about the last days attributed to Joseph Smith.

The White Horse Prophecy is a statement attributed to the Prophet Joseph Smith by Edwin Rushton. What it says depends on how you look at it. Historically, the White Horse Prophecy is problematic. Not only do scholars question its reliability, but the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has denounced it. From a popular culture standpoint, the prophecy is often warped to refer to a Latter-day Saint politician who will save the Constitution prior to the Second Coming. You typically see this second viewpoint in media stories discussing individuals like Mitt Romney, Glenn Beck, or Ammon Bundy.


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Table of Contents


White Horse Prophecy summary

The White Horse Prophecy isn’t easy to summarize, especially when comparing it to what you typically hear in the media. Rather than a single line or paragraph, the alleged prophecy takes up a dozen pages.

It’s the account of a man named Edwin Rushton. We don’t know for sure when it was written, but the best guess of scholars is sometime around the 1890s. The document is allegedly Rushton’s account of a vision shared by Joseph Smith in 1843.

Click here to read the full prophecy.

According to the earliest-written account, Rushton witnesses the Prophet Joseph get into a scuffle with someone who insulted him in the Mansion House in 1843. Rushton sees a man named Theodore Turley go to the Prophet’s defense. As he and Turley begin to talk with Joseph, the Prophet tells them that their persecutions will continue to grow.

The story quickly turns into an apocalyptic tale. Joseph uses the imagery of the four horsemen of the apocalypse. As he paints a picture of a world racing toward destruction, the Prophet says that the Constitution will be nearly destroyed, but that it will ultimately be saved by the combination of two groups of people symbolized as a “white horse” and “red horse.”

Things get even more complicated as the prophecy weaves in talk of a lion, a unicorn, and a couple of popes. Add in references to Zion, the New Jerusalem, Rocky Mountains, and the Lost Tribes, and the scene finally winds up.

An illustration of the complicated White Horse Prophecy that often references Mitt Romney.
The 12-page White Horse Prophecy is more complicated than a solitary figure riding a white horse. The account includes a unicorn, a lion, the Turkish Empire, the Rocky Mountains, Gog and Magog, a Russian tsar, Henry VIII, the Franco-Russian War, and a temple in Jackson County —for starters.

This is as close as you get to a source that doesn’t actually exist.

Gerrit Dirkmaat

It’s a convoluted document of questionable authorship written well after the purported encounter took place. In the years since it was first published, the story gets even more complicated courtesy of denunciations issued by Church leaders, books written by influential believers, and inaccurate summaries perpetuated by the media.

In popular culture, you might see the story altered and simplified to say Joseph Smith prophesied that a future Mitt Romney would save a faltering government symbolized by the image of the Constitution hanging by a thread.


Origins of the White Horse Prophecy

The White Horse Prophecy traces back to a Latter-day Saint pioneer named Edwin Rushton. The English immigrant claimed to have heard Joseph Smith prophesy about the last days in 1843. Many years later, a 12-page account attributed to Rushton surfaced. It included a story couched in biblical language in which Joseph Smith spoke about challenges that would face the world.

It’s a fairly simple origin story—albeit one filled with holes that trouble historians and Church leaders.


Is the White Horse Prophecy reliable?

The White Horse Prophecy is highly unreliable from a historical perspective. Benjamin Park has said that the entire historic community doubts the reminiscence, and historian Gerrit Dirkmaat notably remarked, “This is as close as you get to a source that doesn’t even actually exist.”

Concerns about the authenticity of the White Horse Prophecy stem from criteria historians use to judge reliability.

This five-minute video by Saints Unscripted is a fun and accurate summary of the White Horse Prophecy.

Historical red flags

Consider just a few problems that historians have pointed out:

  • No contemporary first-hand accounts. Joseph Smith never documented the prophecy attributed to him. Edwin Rushton didn’t write it down until many decades later. And Theodore Turley never admitted the event took place.
  • Passage of time. Sources become less reliable as time goes on. A multi-decade gap makes Rushton’s account more suspect.
  • Lengthy statement. The White Horse Prophecy is 12 pages long. It’s unlikely anyone could document the prophecy word-for-word in real time, let alone many decades later.
  • Mysterious revisions. A document often pointed to as the original White Horse Prophecy is written by an unknown individual and apparently signed by Edwin Rushton. But it’s a more-polished version of Rushton’s initial account and includes many significant changes.
  • Missing from early documents. Rushton failed to mention the 1843 vision in his personal 1855 history. It also never appears in the writings of Thomas Bullock, a detail-focused secretary of Joseph Smith who was married to Rushton’s sister. An often-cited version of the White Horse Prophecy also states that Joseph repeated the vision two weeks later, but neither occurrence is recorded in his personal journal (which is detailed enough to document his attendance at “Mr Vickers’ performance on wiredancing.”) Finally, no document has ever been found to corroborate any portion of Rushton’s White Horse Prophecy.
  • Copies of the revision. The White Horse Prophecy began to be circulated in the early Utah pioneer days. The earliest-known copy comes from the journal of John J. Roberts and is based on the revision.
  • Joseph Smith’s personality. This is a small detail as far as historical standards go, but Joseph Smith mocked the idea of scriptures that used lesser figures to represent greater ones. “I could not help laughing that God should take a figure of a beast to [represent] his kingdom consisting of [men],” his journal records on April 8, 1843 (around the time Rushton claims the White Horse Prophecy was given). It would be strange for the Prophet to seriously embrace what he thought of as a foolish comparison.

If we were to put these problems in a single messy paragraph, it might look something like this:

The White Horse Prophecy was attributed to Joseph Smith, but never acknowledged by the Prophet or anyone else other than Edwin Rushton. No one at the time seems to have been familiar with the story, and it wasn't committed to paper for several decades. When it was finally written down, someone revised it and made many significant changes. That revised version was then written down in the journal of John J. Roberts. Copies of his copy of a revised account of unknown authorship attributed to Rushton about a long and complicated end-times vision that may or may not have been given by Joseph Smith embracing an analogy he found laughable then spread far and wide. 

It’s not a summary that wins friends with English teachers. Perhaps more importantly, it also doesn’t impress historians—or Church leaders.


The Church denounced the White Horse Prophecy

Leaders from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints have spoken out against the White Horse Prophecy on at least two occasions. The first took place in 1918 when Elder Joseph Fielding Smith and President Joseph F. Smith independently spoke out in general conference against “the ridiculous story about the ‘red horse’ and ‘the black horse’ and ‘the white horse’ and a lot of trash that has been circulated about . . . as a great revelation given by the Prophet Joseph.”

“It is simply false,” said President Joseph F. Smith. “That is all there is to it.”

The second took place during Mitt Romney’s presidential run in 2010 when the Church issued the following press release:

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is politically neutral and does not endorse or promote any candidate, party or platform. Accordingly, we hope that the campaign practices of political candidates would not suggest that their candidacy is supported by or connected to the church.

The so-called ‘White Horse Prophecy’ is based on accounts that have not been substantiated by historical research and is not embraced as Church doctrine.

Church Statement on “White Horse Prophecy” and Political Neutrality

Key figures associated with the White Horse Prophecy

The people most associated with the White Horse Prophecy can be divided into two groups. Primary figures are people connected with the prophecy’s origins like Edwin Rushton and Joseph Smith.

Secondary individuals can be divided into groups composed of Church leaders, politicians, book authors, and journalists. It’s in this latter context that you see names such as Joseph F. Smith, Mitt Romney, Duane Crowther, and Sally Denton.


Primary figures

Several individuals figure prominently in the earliest accounts of the White Horse Prophecy:

  • Edwin Rushton. The Latter-day Saint pioneer who claimed many years later to have heard Joseph Smith teach the White Horse Prophecy in 1843. Rushton emigrated to Nauvoo in 1842 at the age of 17. Historian Christopher J. Blythe calls Rushton “a fascinating figure” who made frequent use of a seer stone to help people find lost objects. He held several jobs in Utah until his death at the age of 80 in 1904.
  • Theodore Turley. Rushton claimed that he and Turley were together when Joseph Smith recounted the White Horse Prophecy. However, Turley never corroborated Rushton’s written account or admitted he was present for the 1843 meeting (he died in 1871).
  • John J. Roberts. A Latter-day Saint pioneer who heard about Edwin Rushton’s account of the White Horse Prophecy from Robert Pearce, and recorded it in his journal. His revised account is often used as the textual source for the prophecy.
  • Robert Pearce. An unknown individual who John J. Roberts claimed recounted Edwin Rushton’s version of the White Horse Prophecy.
  • Joseph Smith. The originator of the White Horse Prophecy, according to Edwin Rushton. However, while most elements from the White Horse Prophecy can be found in the Prophet’s teachings, no historical record has ever been found to validate the White Horse Prophecy itself.

Secondary figures

The other individuals who have come to be associated with the White Horse Prophecy can be divided into four groups, namely Church leaders, political figures, media members, and book authors.

Church leaders

  • Joseph F. Smith. A Latter-day Saint prophet who denounced the White Horse Prophecy as an Apostle in 1918. “It was never spoken by the prophet in the manner in which they have put it forth,” he said. “It is simply false; that is all there is to it.”
  • Brigham Young. The second president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Brigham Young’s reported statements about the jeopardy of the US Constitution are sometimes confused with the White Horse Prophecy.
  • John Taylor. The third president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Taylor’s place on this list largely stems from a last days vision attributed to him without evidence and altered online from its original form in Wilford Woodruff’s journal. The Dec. 16, 1877 end times vision is sometimes intertwined with the White Horse Prophecy, and is “most certainly not genuine” according to historians Richard Neitzel Holzapfel and Christopher C. Jones.
  • Ezra Taft Benson. He gave a speech at BYU while serving as church president that echoed ideas from the White Horse Prophecy.
  • Eliza R. Snow. One of the most prominent Latter-day Saint pioneer women. She served as the church’s Relief Society President, and said in 1871 that she recalled hearing Joseph Smith say that the Constitution would hang by a thread and eventually be saved by the Elders of the Church.
  • Orson Hyde. A Latter-day Saint Apostle and contemporary of Joseph Smith who recounted in 1858 that the Constitution and government would be in danger, but that it would be saved by the Elders.

Political figures

  • Mitt Romney. His presidential campaign gave rise to the Church’s official disavowal of the White Horse Prophecy in 2010. He was often mentioned in the media as a singular individual who might fulfill the prophecy. His vote to impeach Donald Trump has sometimes been seen as proof that he fulfilled the prophecy. Romney, the Church, and the historical community have all discounted this interpretation.
  • Ammon Bundy. A church member and anti-government activist who believes in the historical accuracy of the White Horse Prophecy and has stated that the Constitution is already hanging by a thread.
  • Donald Trump. One of the more fascinating figures on this list, the former president has been seen as a fulfillment of the White Horse Prophecy in two ways. First, Mr. Trump is seen as being responsible for bringing the American government to the brink of collapse, leading Mitt Romney to become a “white horse” by voting to impeach him. Second, the New York billionaire is also seen through the opposite lens as a white horse that will save democracy from Joe Biden. Both perspectives exist, although an initial literature review shows the first viewpoint is in the strong majority.

Media members

  • Glenn Beck. A prominent Latter-day Saint media member who linked the presidency of Barack Obama with the idea of the Constitution hanging by a thread. He’s also known for a back-and-forth with Sen. Orrin Hatch in which the two men reference the jeopardy of the Constitution.
  • Sally Denton. A Salon journalist who inaccurately presented the White Horse Prophecy as fact and pushed interpretations that prominently featured individuals such as Mitt Romney and Ammon Bundy. Denton’s commentary received widespread pushback and was labeled as a “sinister” and “conspiracy-minded account” by the Columbia Journalism Review.
  • Clifton Jolley. A Latter-day Saint journalist who has written about the White Horse Prophecy and its connection to Mitt Romney, Mike Lee, Paula White, and Donald Trump. Notably, Jolley called out The New York Times for “resurrecting” the White Horse Prophecy after the Church denounced it.

Book authors

  • Ogden Kraut. A Mormon fundamentalist author whose writings about the White Horse Prophecy kept it in circulation. Historian Christopher Blythe has written that Latter-day Saints were generally unaware of his “fundamentalist affiliations.” Kraut was excommunicated from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1972.
  • Duane Crowther. A Latter-day Saint author who helped popularize the White Horse Prophecy by presenting it as reliable in his book, Prophecy—Key to the Future. Dennis B. Horne has written that the book “sold phenomenally well, instantly placing Crowther at the pinnacle of the world of LDS doctrinal writing.”

White Horse Prophecy Full Text

This is the full text of the oldest-known version of the White Horse Prophecy written by Edwin Rushton:

*****

City of Nauvoo Hancock
County Illi
Joseph Smith as a Prophet of the Last Dispensation of the Fullness of Times

On the [blank space] 1843 Being at Work Close by President Joseph Smith Mansion I was at my employment when I Saw the Prophet Running towards me I Drop my Labor as soon as I could do, so. and Started toward him, For I saw him Fall to the Ground and as he was Always Being Persecuted I thought he was Hurt and was going to his assistance but he arose quickly with a man by the Coat Collar he had insulted the Prophet in the Mansion so he run him out, the reason For his Fall was the Man threw himself under his Feet which Caused the Prophet to Fall and when he got on his Feet he was Cuffing his Ears like he would a Boy I wanted the Prophet to turn him over to me and he said you would give him to much I know you, The Mans

No 2

Languange was so Vile he would have agravated an Angel, During this time Brother Theodore Turley came up and he was the only one, this Man whent to Chastize the Prophet For Drinking a toast with a glas of water to the Mobercrats. he accuse the Prophet and called him a False Prophet after he was gone, The Prophet commence to talk about the Mobbings and the Driveings and the Persecutions we as a People had endured But he said we had worse things to see he said Our will have all the Mobbing they will want, But he said to me, Dont wish them any harm, For when you see there Sufferings you will shed Bitter Tears for them, while this conversation was going on we Stood near his South Wicker Gate, in triangle he turned to me and said he wanted to tell us, somethings in the future, but he Shoud Speak in Parables like unto John the Revelator, Littel did I think the Prophet Would be

3

Slain so soon, in Cold Blood.

You will go to the Rockey Mountains and will See a great and Mighty People Built up. Which I will call the white Horse of Peace and Safety, when the Prophet said you will See, I asked him where he would be, about that time he answered I Shall never go there,

Your Enemise will Continue to Follow you with Persecution and make Obnoxious Laws Against you, in Congress to Destroy the White Horse, But you will allways have a Friend or two, to defend you and through throw out the worst Part of the Laws, So they will not Hurt much You must continue to petition Congress all the time, But they will treat you as strangers and Aliens and give you your rights but govern you with Strangers and Comisioners

4

England and France——he said—at this time where Bitter Enemies to each-other but they be allied Together in order to Keep Russia From Conquering the world, this was Fullfilled in the Franco-Russion War.

You will see Ann Ensign raised on the Tops of the Mountains of Peace & Safety For all Nations to Flee unto, by the white Horse

And you See the Constitusion of the United States almost Destroyed so that it will only be saved as it where by a thread, and that thred as fine as finest silk fiber, at this Point the Prophet countainence became Sullen for he Loved the Constitution, he said it was made By the Inspireration of God and it would be Saved By the White Horse and red Horse Combined In its defence,

The Turkish Empire or the Cresent will be one of the first Powers that will be Disrupted

5th

as a Power, For Freedom must given for the Gospel to be Preached in the holy Land, The white Horse will find the Mountains full of all of Minerals and they will become very rich, and you will see Silver piled on the Street By the Cart Load, (and in this day there was no Mines Known in the Rockey Mountains ) and I Should also see Gold Shovel up like Sand and Gold would be of no Valueation in a Mercantile capasity for the people of the world would have something else to do in seeking for Salvation, the time would come when the Banks in every Nation would fail, and only two Places would be safe to Deposite their Gold and treasure and these where with the white Horse and England Vaults

A Terrible Revolution would take Place in the Land of America such as had never been seen before For the Land would Littlerally Left without a Supreme Government, and every Specias

6th

of wickedness would rampant; it would be so terrible that Farther would be against Son & Son against the Farther & Mother against the Daughter & Daughter against the Mother the most terrible Scense of Murder and Blood & Rapine that was ever look upon will take Place Peace will be taken from the Earth and there will be no Peace only in the Rockey Mountains this would cause Hundreds and Thousands of the Honest in Heart to garther not because they were Mormons but because they would not take up the Sword against there Neibors, you will be so numerous you will be in Danger of famine but he said not for seed time & Harvest, and that many would Come with Bundles under there arms to Escape the Calamities and there was no Escape only By Fleeing to Zion, Those that come to you will try and and be one with you for they will see the great of your Organization & Unity __

7th

England, The Lord took of the Best Blood of the Nations, and Planted them on the small Island called Great Brittain or England, and give them Great Power in the Nations for a thousand years and this Power will continue with them, that they may Keep the Balance of Power, to Keep Russia from Usurping Power over all the World, The two Popes Greek and Catholic will come togarther and be united, the Protestant religions do not Know how much they are indebted to Henry the 8th for throwing of the Popes Bull and Establishing the ProTestant Faith he was the only Monark that could do so and he done it because the Nation was at is Back to Sustain him, One peculiar feature in England was there Establish Red Coats to ware such a remarkable Mark to be shot at and yet they conquered where ever they have gone, the reason for this they will Know some day, The Lion and the Unicorn are the Ensign of Israel, the Wisdom and Statesmanship of England Comes From there Being so much of the Blood of Iserel in the Nation,

8th

While this terrible Revulution goes on England will be Neutral untill it becomes so inhuman and to Stop the Shedding of Blood, France & England will be Allied together and come with the intention to make Peace. Not to Subdue the Nation But when they find the nation so Broken up with many governments or No Government, then it will appear to the other Nations as though England had taken Possesion of the Country, the Black Horse will Flee to the invaders and Join in with them for they be afraid of becoming Slaves again, Knowing England never believed in Slavery they would be safe, Armed with Brittish Bayonets the doings of the Black Horse when got the Master so, the Prophet said in the Vision to him, the Scene was so terrible he could Bear to look upon it and he ask the Lord to close the Scene and if he could not Bear to look upon it who had seen the Farther & Son and Angles in there Glory he did not Know, who could Bear to see it. During this time the great white Horse was gathering Strong & sending out Elders to get the Honest among them <&> the Pale Horse or people of the United States to Stand By the Constitution of the United States as it was given Inspiration of the Lord.

9th

In these days God will set up a Kingdom never to be throne down for these Kingdoms to come unto, and those Kingdoms that will not let the Gospel be Preached will be Humble untill they will, Germany, Demark Holland Switzeland—Norway & Sweden, Belgium, the reason being that to a great extent the Blood of Israel is in these nations and were a be saved or must be gathered Have much of the Blood of Israel among them and they will Submit to the Kingdom of God But England will be the last Kingdom to surrender but when she does surrender she will do it as a Whole, In comeparison as she threw of the Catholic Power, the Prophet said the English Nobility Knew the Gospel was True but it had not Pomp and Grandjure & Influence for them embrace it, they are proud and will not acknowledge the Kingdom of God or come into it until they do see the Power which it will have. The Peace and Safety in Rockey Mountains was protected By a Cordon Band of the White Horse and the Red Horse and tribes of Israel, Comeing of the Messiah Among his People would be so Natural that only those who saw him, would Know he had come, but he would come and give his Laws unto Zion and Minester unto his People. This is not his Comeing in clouds of Heaven to take Vengeance on the World

10th

The Temple in Jackson County to be Built up in this Generation but the Saints will think there will be no time, to Build it but with all the Great Help you receive you can Put up a great temple, You will have Gold & Silver and Precious Stones For these things will be only used for Beautifying the temple with all the Skilled Mechanic and the Ten Tribes of Israel to Help you Build it, There is a land beyond the Rockey Mountains that Will be Invadered By the Chineas with out great Care and Protection is given to them, The last great Struggle Zion will have to [erasure] contend with when America will be the Zion of Our God, Called Gog & Magog, led By the Russiaian Czar his Power will be very great

These are the inspired words of the Prophecy Joseph Smith [blank space] Testimony of Elder Edwin Rushton of the church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints

As the Stood looking into the Heavens his Countenence became white and transparent he look as if he had as much of the Heavenly Influence as he could Bare and Stay with the Saints his Voice was Powerfull and his words cut like a two Edge Sword

Edwin Rushton

[There is no page 11]

12

This toast was given and was the cause of bringing about the foregoing.

I will drink you a toast to the mobocrats, if you will get me a drink of water; Here’s wishing there were in the middle of the Sea, in a Stone canoe with iron paddles, and shark swallow the canoe, and the devil Swallow the shark, and him locked up in the North West corner of Hell and the Key lost and a blind man looking for it.

W Clayton

Ths Bulluk

is there any man who can talk

this day I’m going to preach the greatest sermon I ever preached


White Horse Prophecy FAQ

What is the white horse in the Bible?

The white horse in the Bible is associated with one of the four horsemen of the apocalypse. The rider of the horse often symbolizes Christ, although sometimes it also represents an Antichrist.


Is Mitt Romney the fulfillment of the White Horse Prophecy?

No, the White Horse Prophecy has been identified as an unreliable document by both historians and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. If the document were historic, the “white horse” would be associated not with a single individual like Romney, but rather two groups of people.


What did Joseph Smith say about the Constitution?

Joseph Smith said that the Constitution would one day hang by a thread. He also commissioned a committee to draft a document patterned after the Constitution, but ultimately had them stop, and told them that he would be their constitution.


What was the prophecy of the Constitution hanging by a thread?

Joseph Smith said on several occasions that the Constitution would one day hang by a thread. However, most people associate the statement with a questionable document called the White Horse Prophecy.


What was John Taylor’s Horseshoe Prophecy?

The Horseshoe Prophecy (sometimes confused with the White Horse Prophecy) is an apocalyptic vision that is often falsely attributed to John Taylor. It often surfaces in association with presidential elections, and has been called a fraud by historians like Richard Turley, Ardis Parshall, Richard Neitzel Holzapfel, and Christopher C. Jones.


What did Bruce R. McConkie say about the White Horse Prophecy?

Bruce R. McConkie said that the White Horse Prophecy is false. In his characteristic forward style, Elder McConkie wrote in Mormon Doctrine, “It is a sad commentary on the spiritual insight of professing saints that they will generate intense interest in these supposed prophetic utterances and yet know little of and pay less attention to the volumes of true and sound prophetic writings which delineate authoritatively the course of latter-day world events.”


Further reading

White Horse Prophecy Resources

  • Terrible Revolution: Latter-day Saints and the American Apocalypse (Oxford)
  • White Horse Prophecy (Standard of Truth Podcast)
  • 63 Primary Sources (Mormonr)
  • Church Statement on “White Horse Prophecy” and Political Neutrality (Church Newsroom)
  • Edwin Rushton as the Source of the White Horse Prophecy (BYU Studies)
  • Critical Analysis of Certain Apocryphal Reports in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints As Related By Members of the Church (Don L. Penrod)

Sources

Ardis Parshall. “‘Concocted In Some Corner’: A Bogus ‘Vision’ Surfaces Again . . . and Again . . . and Again.” (Link)

Betsy Gaines Quammen. “COVID-19 and the White Horse Prophecy: The Theology of Ammon Bundy.” (Link)

Bruce R. McConkie. “Mormon Doctrine.”

Christopher James Blythe. “Terrible Revolution: Latter-day Saints and the American Apocalypse.” (Link)

Carrie Sheffield. “White Horse in the White House.” (Link)

Clifton Jolley. “The Fake News White Horse Prophecy Rides Again.” (Link)

Chris Lehmann. “Pennies From Heaven: How Mormon Economics Shape the G.O.P.” (Link)

D. Michael Quinn. “Plural Marriage and Mormon Fundamentalism.” (Link)

Dallin H. Oaks. “Defending Our Divinely Inspired Constitution.” (Link)

Dennis B. Horne. “Mormon Book Bits #16: Duane S. Crowther, Prophecy—Key to the Future & The Prophecies of Joseph Smith.” (Link)

Donald Q. Cannon. “Latter-day Prophets and the United States Constitution.” (Link)

Don L. Penrod. “Critical Analysis of Certain Apocryphal Reports in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints As Related By Members of the Church.” (Link)

Don L. Penrod. “Edwin Rushton as the Source of the White Horse Prophecy.” (Link)

Edward-Isaac Dovere. “Romney’s Mormon Faith in Spotlight.” (Link)

Erika Fry. “Romney and the ‘Mormon Moment’: Lots of Fear and Loathing From the Pundit Class.” (Link)

Ezra Taft Benson. “The Constitution—A Heavenly Banner.” (Link)

Gerrit Dirkmaat. “White Horse Prophecy Part 1.” (Link)

Gerrit Dirkmaat. “White Horse Prophecy Part 2.” (Link)

Gospel Tangents. “466: White Horse Prophecy (Part 7 of 7 Dr. Chris Blythe).” (Link)

Joseph Smith, “‘President Joseph Smith’s Journal,’ Journal, 4 Vols., Dec. 1842–June 1844; Handwriting and Signatures of Willard Richards.” (Link)

Leah Sottile. “Bundyville Chapter Two: By a Thread.” (Link)

Lee Hale. “Latter-Day: White Horse Prophecy, Romney and the Constitution Hanging By a Thread.” (Link)

Lyman Kirkland. “Church Statement on ‘White Horse Prophecy’ and Political Neutrality.” (Link)

Max Perry Mueller. “Mitt Romney’s Mormon Mission.” (Link)

Morgan Barron. “Vote Biden to Fulfill the White Horse Prophecy.” (Link)

Mormonr. “White Horse Prophecy: 63 Primary Sources.” (Link)

NPR Staff. “Glenn Beck: Reading Between the Coded Lines.” (Link)

Richard Neitzel Holzapfel and Christopher C. Jones. “‘John the Revelator’: The Written Revelations of John Taylor.” (Link)

Richard E. Turley. “Victims: The LDS Church and the Mark Hofmann Case.” (Link)

Rone Tempest. “Was Mitt Romney’s Vote the Fulfillment of a Mormon Prophecy?” (Link)

Ryan Broderick. “Romney’s Vote to Remove Trump From Office Sparked Rumors About the ‘White Horse Prophecy.'” (Link)

Sally Denton. “Romney and the White Horse Prophecy: A Close Look at the Roots of Romney’s—and the Mormon Church’s—Political Ambitions.” (Link)

The Editors of the Encylopaedia Britannica. “Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.” (Link)

Timothy Egan. “Mormons to the Rescue?” (Link)

By Kurt Manwaring

Writer. History nerd. Latter-day Saint.

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